Synonym of frustrating

Alternative for frustrating

frustrates, frustrated, frustrating

Synonym: defeat, foil, ruin, spoil, thwart,

Antonym: accomplish, encourage, fulfill,

Adjective

Causing annoyance or anger by excessive difficulty
aggravating annoying bothersome vexatious vexing exasperating galling irritating infuriating irksome maddening provoking rankling trying upsetting abrasive challenging discouraging pesky riling wearisome carking chafing disappointing disturbing nettlesome nettling peeving pestiferous pestilent pestilential plaguy pesty plaguey rebarbative unsatisfying troublesome tiresome displeasing grating infernal disagreeable difficult confounded cussed troubling harassing tedious distressing nagging inconvenient awkward unpleasant antagonizing niggling antagonising burdensome perturbing unsettling irking worrisome unwelcome enraging wearing agitating disconcerting enough to try the patience of a saint enough to drive you up the wall teasing jarring harrying objectionable boring worrying wretched repugnant thorny painful forbidding puzzling knotty taxing discommoding bedevilling discomposing discomforting incommodious tricky mean unpleasing tormenting agonizing unnerving unamusing festering antipathetic ugly wicked demanding punchable agonising uncongenial unattractive impossible bedeviling traumatic accursed disquieting troublous deplorable lamentable problematic humiliating nauseating afflicting concerning stupid distasteful unpalatable plaguing acid afflictive idiotic offensive provocative instigative inflaming affronting charged inflammatory goading exciting insulting instigating inciting agitational piquing stimulating incendiary agitative edgy controversial in-your-face obstructive nasty harsh hard alarming disruptive unsuitable severe dismaying laborious bitter embarrassing perplexing distressful inappropriate bad rough frightening startling toilsome ominous gloomy onerous sinister foreboding depressing intrusive impeding threatening consequential obnoxious discordant inopportune inexpedient untimely unseasonable unlovely unfortunate creepy yukky rotten unsavory icky yucky discommodious tough inharmonious nerve-racking pessimistic prophetic uncertain cruel inconsiderate rude unfriendly hateful unkind hurtful unsavoury sticky hairy prickly raucous shrill sharp sour unfavorable unfavourable cacophonous horrible incommoding strident disadvantageous grotesque unaesthetic unhandy dissonant unmanageable unwieldy vicious malicious detrimental cumbersome spiteful tense uneasy stridulent confronting undesirable insensitive poisonous gruff execrable ill-timed uncomfortable venomous vindictive detestable abusive harrowing fraught malign churlish unbearable wounding out of place repellent lousy ill-humored mean-spirited ill-tempered ill-natured ill-humoured bad-tempered dislikable sickening remote prejudicial shocking restless nail-biting nervous anxious nerve-wracking daunting arduous oppressive grave importunate scary anxious-making intractable undisciplined murder heavy uphill rowdy infestive dangerous ungovernable damaging repressive messy disorderly apprehensive stridulous ill suited dry harsh-sounding ticklish unpopular complicated sensitive delicate unlucky undesired incongruous clashing screeching piercing blaring intricate involved disobliging tickly flustering discomfiting torturous regrettable rejected unwanted malevolent conflicting incompatible grinding contrasting malignant dodgy baffling dolorous bumpy blameworthy unacceptable reprehensible excluded uninvited noisy rasping jangling scraping squeaky uncharitable catty vile surly hostile despicable grievous itchy distressed scratchy unsought not wanted ill-advised too bad ill-favored ill-favoured exceptionable unwished for unwished-for inadmissible complex tricksy problematical touchy spiny catchy snide cantankerous ignominious sordid ignoble currish dirty despiteful dishonorable contemptible base virulent low paltry squawky boisterous fierce rabid rugged ferocious squawking causing discomfort ill-fitting convoluted uncharacteristic loud unharmonious ornery ruthless sarcastic dishonourable explosive forceful convulsive ear-piercing furious echinated briery pointed evil-minded low-minded low-down paroxysmal turbulent volcanic blustering unmelodious unmusical tumultuous forcible buffeting miserable cutting unlikable impolite repulsive biting unlovable appalling horrid caustic awful invidious terrible abominable odious dreadful revolting disgusting abhorrent gross ghastly frightful insufferable stern unloveable vitriolic grody gnarly cross unfeeling brusque brutal acerbic callous curt pitiless acerb unsympathetic comfortless aggressive spiky argumentative eye-watering rubbing the wrong way hard to take

Adjective

Imposing or constituting a physical, mental, or figurative load
trying hard tough difficult taxing fatiguing stressful arduous heavy demanding pressured upsetting aggravating bitter brutal burdensome cruel exacting exasperating excruciating exhausting fraught grievous grim grueling gruelling hardhanded harsh inhuman murderous onerous oppressive rough rugged searing severe stiff testing tiring traumatic troublesome wearing bothersome hellish irksome strenuous vexing wearisome exigent pestilent sticky tight tricky weighty a stinker of a tense worrying challenging anxious draining enervating sapping tedious punishing harrowing toilsome agitating hectic crushing vexatious rigorous laborious nerve-racking anxiety-ridden back-breaking awful foul horrible dreadful terrible horrid rotten vile ghastly nasty horrendous unpleasant appalling abominable disagreeable frightful atrocious grotty lousy beastly hellacious from hell a bummer of a uphill wearying grinding backbreaking formidable crippling killing tiresome distressing herculean effortful worrisome moiling disturbing stringent debilitating hairy killer distressful sweaty Herculean daunting tall enervative ponderous torturous bruising unsparing unnerving uneasy painful disquieting ambitious tortuous unsettling agonizing galling restless nail-biting creepy unremitting serious nervous toilful agonising Augean knackering persnickety uncomfortable energy-consuming forbidding thorny fierce intimidating extreme intolerable merciless cumbersome weary exciting operose depleting pick-and-shovel unbearable labored laboured awkward painstaking mighty nerve-wracking relentless intense colossal unforgiving strict pressing imperious charged hefty titanic upstream vigorous unyielding gargantuan superincumbent shattering slavish difficile tough going anxious-making concerning panicky drudging inconvenient excessive problematic scary embittering immoderate grave unfair punitive inexorable high-impact impossible prohibitive jarring solemn backbreaker time-consuming immense staggering gigantic headache really hard very hard mean troubling powerful unreasonable exorbitant prostrating searching frightening stretching overburdening steep a nuisance responsible an imposition thoroughgoing carking edgy dour alarming menacing gut-wrenching terrifying harassing irritating annoying maddening major dogged wicked slow no piece of cake austere overtaxing overpowering plodding boring wretched exerting dithery nervy stressed dicey hazardous easier said than done torturesome unendurable hard-won drudgy no picnic vicious marathon high-pressure problem ominous insufferable tormenting not easy worksome like getting blood out of a stone ferocious almighty savage scabrous uphill battle discomforting nagging worried overwrought shocking emotionally exhausting emotionally depleting twitchy uptight agitated antsy taut jittery rigid unrelaxed tyrannical repressive dictatorial excited unquiet spooky unsettled autocratic domineering queasy concerned queazy withering strained despotic undemocratic unjust draconian on edge tyrannous overwhelming dark authoritarian iron-fisted overbearing pitiless anti-democratic ruthless coercive high-handed overweening peremptory knife-edge disheartening gloomy discouraging sombre dismal depressive dispiriting ironhanded rough going bleak heavy-handed somber depressing confining emotionally draining troubled cliffhanging dramatic volatile full of problems beset by problems explosive white-knuckle

Adjective

(informal) Extremely boring
deadly boring dull uninteresting monotonous tedious unexciting dreary flat humdrum lackluster lacklustre mind-numbing uneventful uninspiring unstimulating arid bland dry unrelieved wearisome irksome soul-destroying tiresome tiring trying dull as ditchwater dullsville ornery samey ho-hum dry as dust lacking variation lacking variety as dry as dust no great shakes not up to much nothing to write home about prosaic stuffy stodgy drab colourless slow banal stale colorless pedestrian numbing ponderous jejune monochromatic wearying dusty jading drudging tame heavy old insipid lifeless vapid routine leaden run-of-the-mill stupid weary blah mundane unimaginative commonplace featureless soporific dreich draggy ho hum dull as dishwater trite uniform unchanging sterile monochrome unvaried spiritless quotidian workaday plodding unremarkable empty stiff innocuous inane yawnsome bromidic lacking excitement lacking interest staid sedate pompous fuddy-duddy square conventional difficult uninspired characterless weariful nondescript wooden unoriginal tired unenjoyable passionless soulless unentertaining lame serious repetitive over-serious fatiguing unspirited derivative heavy-going repetitious ordinary worn-out prolix deadening big yawn hackneyed common unvarying droning dead toneless mechanical turgid vacant pointless depressing without variety unfeeling wishy-washy unexcited expressionless mat dulled lusterless dim milk-and-water unexpressive watery matte monotonic nothing all the same reiterated monotone treadmill recurrent samely banausic unchanged sing-song uninflected flat as pancake puts one to sleep sapless weak unseasoned muted unpalatable prosy vanilla blind whitebread laborious labored laboured namby-pamby lead balloon simplistic crude meager barren meagre everyday usual vacuous plain hacky interminable torpid mediocre platitudinous unexceptional unanimated nowhere predictable repeated zero plain vanilla pabulum limp matter-of-fact feeble bloodless normal common or garden stereotyped undistinguished iterative dismal lustreless apathetic desolate corny anaemic reiterative unmemorable enervating exhausting duplicative stock automatic day-to-day typical sluggish sombre middle-of-the-road regular long-winded anemic garden-variety mindless somber static inoffensive stilted miserable zestless constant unadventurous cold customary clichéd uncreative antiseptic recurring listless average verbose undiversified deadly dull repeating well-worn continual white-bread dragging neutral clockwork gloomy dingy cheerless gray grey habitual joyless grim old hat run of the mill dispiriting depressed a dime a dozen pallid bleak threadbare familiar undistinctive non-stimulating formal hack overlong flavourless unappealing endless overused pedantic overworked ceaseless insistent moth-eaten quiet safe forced uninviting indifferent impersonal plebeian robotic unproductive mainstream hollow off-putting derived second-rate uninventive nitty-gritty terrestrial so-so standard regimented flavorless long-drawn-out downcast recapitulatory iterant lowly bog-standard OK truistic hoary clear sad yawn emotionless garden variety cut-and-dry cut-and-dried standard-issue unnoteworthy unemotional simple timeworn frequent time-worn echoic cliché-ridden worn out institutional played out trivial deep glum dark wonted daily forlorn shadowy tenebrous depressive macabre funereal lonely dolorous morbid usual thing long longwinded frequentative prosing menial unlively unpassioned indistinct bummer drag cloying drear bomb annoying irritating disheartening unsatisfying demoralizing unfulfilling not fun boresome vexatious unmodulated undemonstrative clumsy unnatural awkward artificial unartistic stolid solemn wordy yawn producing similar workday lethargic mortal poky snooze slack sleepy unimpassioned uninterested tepid unromantic stagnant cautious inert unimpressed unmoved heavy-handed dowdy demoralising straightforward half-pie cardboard unprogressive inactive circumspect raw wintry wintery sorrowful damp oppressive windy unfateful indecisive noneventful inconclusive prudent one-horse modest brainless poor half-hearted inadequate chary stereotypical puerile not so hot dead-and-alive homespun unsentimental unvarnished unembellished unpoetic literal factual unadorned businesslike overdone attentive weighty waterish nerdy wimpy phoned in middling unpretentious soft mild drivelling nebbish driveling beige fatuous tenuous slight subdued inexpressive lacking vitality passive deadpan timid heavy going unobjectionable shopworn cliche obligatory cornball musty hackney cobwebby harmless devoid of feeling devoid of emotion homely fair useless two-dimensional gingerly considerate careful heedful wary calculating dime-store halfhearted diluted passable diddly practical actual practicable prose clean futile facile noplace dumb hokey cornfed tripe humble suburban conservative out of date hard to digest undemanding slothful spent outdated boiled down without punch old-fashioned run-of-the-mine medium tolerable run-of-mine second-class outmoded vain profitless archaic unenterprising obsolete ubiquitous household dime-a-dozen not bad forbidding defunct extinct antiquated unrewarding plastic inferior generic garden mean antediluvian leery superannuated matter-of- fact general passé unwelcoming clinical fruitless worthless universal prevalent unappetizing inedible aimless valueless unprofitable purposeless antwacky severe spartan austere stark out of the ark cut and dried prevailing persistent expected unsavoury tasteless distasteful uneatable savourless ineffectual otiose unavailing unsuccessful bootless inefficacious ineffective abortive bare perpetual rife incessant profuse extensive rampant natural unfruitful unfilled unprolific unpleasant unattractive disagreeable instinctive involuntary governmental utilitarian corporate functional unsavory rudimentary ugly elementary unthinking unconscious machine-like cursory perfunctory standard issue inattentive spontaneous casual mechanic inhuman instinctual careless knee-jerk negligent motorized powered useful standardized reflex programmed mechanistic systematic laborsaving standardised fixed motorised

Adjective

Causing or tending to cause deliberate difficulties and delays
obstructive difficult contrary awkward disobliging unaccommodating uncooperative unhelpful blocking delaying inhibiting restrictive stalling balky bloody-minded bolshie hindering perverse thrawn unconstructive contrarious disruptive froward making difficulties obstreperous unreasonable stubborn cussed obstinate troublesome tiresome recalcitrant stroppy refractory pigheaded vexatious inflexible intractable obdurate wilful annoying truculent headstrong unyielding bull-headed cantankerous contumacious negative disobedient mulish unamenable hostile unbending antagonistic unfriendly adverse uncompromising renitent pervicacious irritable trying ill-natured wayward unsupportive capricious exasperating self-willed opinionated intransigent unsympathetic stiff-necked inimical immovable disagreeable argumentative quarrelsome crabby untoward cross-grained unpredictable prickly rude touchy critical chippy unmanageable ornery hard to handle irrational peevish morose biased illogical shrewish blinkered arbitrary prejudiced intolerant strong-willed determined grumpy ill-tempered sullen sulky not giving an inch confrontational not helpful belligerent self-centered bad-tempered narky ratty shirty choleric prejudicial vexing pesky scrappy unobliging unfavorable complex bulky incommodious cramped discommodious uncivil discourteous opposed unpleasant unfavourable unamiable uncongenial filibustering spoiling unwilling difficult to handle discouraging vicious disadvantageous inconsiderate unresponsive unadaptable impeding counter piggish self-centred rock-ribbed anti undermining invalidating sticky disparaging derogatory discrediting harsh corrosive offensive caustic abrasive destructive not cooperative willful ungovernable defiant unruly rebel recusant insubordinate incompliant rebellious restive grumbly hardheaded hypercritical overbearing importunate strong-minded pitiless strict picky single-minded dissatisfied querulous bearish set in one's ways boorish unrelenting rigid hard-line stiff finical huffy hard-nosed vexed testy invidious steadfast choosy fiendish delicate dogmatic oppressive captious snappy sensitive tough hard to please hard to satisfy temperamental irritating crotchety indomitable fussy unflinching overcritical uppity wrong-headed inexorable grim impolite uptight opinionative disputatious irascible feisty perfectionist particular resolute fastidious over-particular finicky dictatorial fractious disputative sour oafish pertinacious discontented ungracious demanding tyrannical contrariant nonconforming dissident discordant arsey nonconformist disagreeing paradoxical antipathetic converse wrongheaded dissentient pig-headed uncontrollable mutinous disorderly undisciplined dogged wild adamant resistant bullheaded incontrollable implacable disaffected insurgent noncompliant turbulent ossified pat adamantine inconvincible hardened hard tenacious riotous self-opinionated seditious unmalleable persistent stubborn as a mule uncompliant unpersuadable naughty delinquent errant non-compliant out of control opposing badly behaved insurrectionary incorrigible resistive resisting unrestrained mischievous inauspicious unbiddable out of hand factious revolutionary relentless insubmissive anarchic persevering firm problematic indurate unpropitious unshakeable unshakable threatening bellicose challenging pugnacious untimely irrepressible unfortunate inconvenient ill-timed impish deaf to reason alienated mistimed unsuitable inappropriate unseasonable roguish rascally inopportune contentious malcontent insolent rowdy subversive uncontrolled infelicitous inapt insurrectionist dissenting unpliable indocile dissentious malapropos troublemaking steely boisterous lawless fixed iconoclastic attention-seeking chaotic resolved radical loud badly timed noisy disturbing insistent treacherous combative locked in militant rumbustious unbridled iron-willed reckless impetuous irreconcilable estranged haughty tetchy grouchy cross petulant nonobservant renegade obstinately disobedient impudent heretical maverick assiduous purposeful malign malevolent maleficent malicious spiteful undisciplinable withstanding tireless indefatigable ominous up in arms unorthodox mutinying apostate schismatic traitorous ill-chosen uncomplying unrestrainable incurable aggressive as stubborn as a mule erratic fickle impotent rampant unbendable loath negativistic averse reluctant indisposed hesitant untrained disloyal ill daring provocative audacious bold with a will of one's own determined to have one's own way unsteady unschooled unalterable hard-core hard-shell locked-in unmoved unbreakable heady insoluble thorny locked knotty without law and order inexpedient bothersome precocious early premature convinced remorseless restless individualistic anarchistic warring armed sabotaging treasonable attacking inconsistent ungoverned unbearable undependable intolerable impossible vociferous rough tempestuous uproarious raucous with one's feet dug in with one's toes dug in dead set on stalwart tough nut hang tough clamorous rampaging immoral aberrant rambunctious disregardful cheeky dareful sassy gutsy roisterous rackety tumultuous unanticipated unexpected lacking self-control rip-roaring ready for a fight rampageous roistering unforeseen disastrous unusual surprising unpredicted spoiling for a fight piercing screaming booming strepitous blusterous self-indulgent lively rollicking romping anarchical heedless lawbreaking unlucky unwelcome raising the roof raising Cain against impulsive impervious violent rash intemperate imprudent forward assertive drunken bawdy mean out of line misfortunate hapless ill-starred star-crossed luckless dead set against hostile to disinclined to accept inimical to opposed to averse to reluctant to accept unenthusiastic about unwilling to accept

Adjective

Failing to fulfill someone's hopes or expectations
disappointing depressing discouraging disheartening dispiriting disillusioning dismaying distressing disenchanting saddening upsetting dissatisfying regrettable sad unfortunate anticlimactic disconcerting unpleasant displeasing grim difficult troubling horrific disturbing awful dreadful testing unwelcome unhappy parlous worrying alarming melancholic dismal unfavorable shocking unnerving austere unfavourable ghastly unlucky bad glum foreboding horrible agonising off-putting irritable irksome bleak dire sombre bewildering depressive distressful perturbing bitter macabre somber daunting troubled poignant hopeless cheerless gloomy ominous unpropitious distasteful disagreeable dreary woeful melancholy sinister morose appalling painful inauspicious perplexing distressed frightening tragic sullen troublesome mephitical aggravating hellish uncongenial irritating annoying unpleasing unkind abhorrent unpalatable repellant galling repellent repugnant loathsome vexing agonizing revulsive unamusing demoralizing dejecting demoralising heartbreaking heart-rending black heartrending oppressive wretched crushing traumatic harrowing lamentable funereal doleful mournful piteous tear-jerking joyless pitiful sorrowful pathetic grievous dampening pitiable moving sorry lachrymose heart-wrenching unpromising pessimistic miserable comfortless dark morbid desolate disconsolate excruciating drear terrible discomposing lugubrious tragical deplorable plaintive calamitous touching unsettling intimidating desolating sickening teary tearful grave affecting blue downbeat despairing hurtful gut-wrenching afflictive murky solemn chill Cimmerian sepulchral plutonian acherontic acheronian afflicted anguished grieving agonized looking on the black side disastrous catastrophic cruel tortured racked agonised feeble paltry mean poor rueful drab dispirited mirthless dolorous dolesome vexatious uncomfortable cold depressed dingy plangent horrifying derisible mortifying pensive frightful repressing inopportune disadvantageous dissuading hindering deterring not encouraging not hopeful

Verb

To be irritating or upsetting, typically with repeated or unpleasant acts
annoying harassing aggravating antagonizing bugging exasperating galling getting goading irking irritating narking nettling peeving pestering riling ruffling vexing nagging upsetting angering bothering displeasing disturbing hassling incensing infuriating maddening making angry needling provoking teasing agitating getting to incommoding making cross molesting perturbing troubling worrying badgering bedeviling bedevilling breaking chafing distressing enraging frosting gnawing grating harrying henpecking nudging persecuting piquing plaguing riding rubbing up the wrong way spiting beleaguering burning up driving crazy driving to distraction graveling gravelling rankling antagonising bumming out driving mad eating getting at getting someone's goat getting under your skin getting up your nose giving someone grief giving someone the hump hacking off making your blood boil teeing off ticking off winding up cheesing off driving round the bend driving round the twist driving up the wall egging on firing up getting in your hair getting on your wick getting someone's dander up getting your back up hacking you off heating up making someone see red making waves turning off working on asking for it getting on your nerves giving someone the pip putting your back up hitting where one lives miffing putting out inflaming getting across dissatisfying rasping offending tormenting griping itching getting your goat making somebody's hackles rise afflicting embittering discomposing outraging roiling chagrining trying getting your dander up ruffling one's feathers getting up someone's nose dismaying torturing souring disaffecting rattling someone's cage disquieting exacerbating paining fretting disgusting getting on one's nerves getting your hackles up giving a hard time trying your patience driving nuts envenoming poisoning getting someone's wick alienating flustering discouraging straining disillusioning rattling disgruntling depressing discomfiting besetting hurting racking mortifying unhinging unnerving demoralizing exciting making resentful making bitter estranging thwarting perplexing dogging excruciating agonizing hounding sending into a rage embarrassing humping mithering biting agonising rubbing the wrong way working up wearing on rankling with wearing out raising your hackles demoralising putting someone's nose out of joint driving bananas trying the patience of rousing disenchanting getting in someone's hair making someone's hackles rise trying someone's patience getting on someone's tits getting on someone's nerves getting someone's hackles up getting someone's back up ruffling someone's feathers getting under someone's skin sticking in one's craw setting one's teeth on edge bumming injuring wigging hacking getting someone picking on affronting insulting aliening scandalizing wounding harming discontenting taxing wearing eating at foiling disobliging repelling zinging capping revolting mispleasing cooling winging curdling sounding disappointing testing fussing harrowing cursing crazing abrading playing dirty hanging up scandalising cutting to the quick getting even upsetting the applecart crabbing grudging lousing up begrudging giving a bad time grating on mixing up enflaming madding iring disheartening oppressing blighting assailing driving you crazy dispiriting driving out of mind making livid steaming up driving you round the bend umbraging shattering driving you off your head making you see red driving you to distraction making somebody's blood boil distracting driving you round the twist possessing driving you out of your mind anguishing besieging stretching wearying sapping draining exhausting stressing disconcerting tiring inconveniencing enticing titillating confounding fazing chilling daunting chillin unmanning discommoding discountenancing empoisoning jaundicing crucifying making demands on putting a strain on wringing tiring out making severe demands on martyring beguiling baiting taunting leading on intriguing alluring fascinating luring tempting making discontented unsettling nonplussing worsening discomforting baffling charming stirring up throwing off balance flurrying bittering making rancorous acidulating confusing abashing venoming putting off acerbating keeping someone hanging on tantalising making your mouth water tantalizing flirting with keeping hanging bullying pressurizing hectoring browbeating coercing pressuring intimidating pressurising dragooning burdening pressing bulldozing forcing railroading chivvying heckling strong-arming leaning on prodding terrorizing grieving compelling importuning concerning tyrannizing terrorising victimizing blackjacking devilling deviling tyrannising pushing niggling bludgeoning cowing alarming haunting impelling gnawing at victimising ailing driving putting the screws on causing suffering to obliging menacing constraining frightening saddening pursuing going on at appalling keeping on at putting pressure on domineering prevailing on mistreating threatening steamrollering ill-treating aggrieving making frazzling bullyragging distempering abusing chivying exercising maltreating discombobulating hustling weighing down keeping after using strong-arm tactics on putting the squeeze on ridiculing stinging ragging bogarting alaruming derailing hagriding mau-mauing undoing pushing around scolding mocking harping on at ribbing blustering fast-talking preying on picking at weirding out breathing down someone's neck freaking out chaffing squeezing pricking brainwashing scaring interrupting impressing affecting urging hazing obligating smiting dominating throwing dunning sandbagging muscling having it in for imposing on bringing pressure to bear on making anxious lying heavy on bending someone's ear putting down inciting prompting disrupting razzing stirring crushing subjugating influencing discriminating against inducing shaking attacking pecking at using pressure on twisting someone's arm burning making things hot for someone weighing heavily on riding roughshod over causing trouble to exploiting joshing deriding bantering dejecting guying criticizing moving spurring berating boring bewildering persuading gripping obsessing gibing pushing about wronging quizzing scourging instigating overbearing overwhelming whipping stewing sickening making uneasy triggering bouncing spooking grumbling at making miserable making wretched despotizing pothering press-ganging tearing enforcing having a down on finding fault with taking the mickey putting up to criticising turning on the heat ragging on weighing on siccing nagging at jibing at taking the piss out of preying on your mind making fun of causing anguish to eating away at intruding upon suppressing humiliating kidding roasting smothering facing satirizing subduing jiving joking rallying twitting carping ruling startling devastating confronting terrifying festering preoccupying abasing funning reminding belittling chiacking fearing destroying punishing unfairly upbraiding excoriating misusing blackmailing overawing rending panicking cajoling overpowering sweating nauseating dashing enslaving chiding stabbing puzzling shucking smoking addling punishing rotting buffaloing flummoxing kicking sledging bringing down casting down rousting making nervous shaking up bossing about bossing around searing insisting getting down stressing out carping at beating treating harshly indisposing causing anxiety to making it hot for someone having on keying up giving the business putting screws to finding fault making a monkey of flouting at messing with putting into a flap flipping out flooring rattling one's cage putting under an obligation turning the screws on putting someone off their stroke poking mullock at hanging over taking advantage of having someone do something falling on making uncomfortable ill-using infesting grinding down tightening the screws on tyrannizing over causing someone to lose their composure getting across someone causing discomfort to singling out goofing on jeering at satirising twisting one's arm throwing into a tizz grinding cutting up making someone fed up hurting somebody's feelings poking fun at poking borak at making sport of insisting on laughing at putting on causing concern to coming at plying keeping complaining to putting the heat on rubbing you up the wrong way putting on the spot rowelling eating up causing agony to acting on driving you up the wall slinging off at roweling scoffing at moaning at sending up barraging causing anxiety walking all over buffeting making jokes about buffetting showing antagonism to disapproving of fooling around soliciting petitioning keeping at ruining ravaging feeling ill will towards showing ill will towards bearing a grudge towards telling off steamrolling scorning browning off recurring calling names imposing upon compressing wheedling arousing hostility in giving someone hell caviling cavilling pushing someon's buttons messing niggling at getting on the nerves of getting in the hair of getting on someone disparaging touching harping on squashing condensing constricting frenzying deranging jeering arguing requiring staying with coming back to kidding around unquieting making fretful making restless shocking causing offense swaggering politicking selling working over reviling reproaching dampening spirits breaking one's heart tweaking running up the wrong way questioning examining causing to panic buttonholing barracking booing talking swaying violating manipulating causing annoyance to causing resentment to grilling boning leading someone a merry dance playing cat and mouse putting through wringer rubbing salt in wound riding roughshod walking heavy making blue putting into a funk chastening breaking the heart of dragging down putting a damper on castigating desolating making it tough for strapping doing a number on arousing anxiety in pushing buttons nit-picking sticking it to giving it to dishing it out dishing out overcharging setting on taking a rise out of starting getting a rise out of setting off working into lather belabouring becoming bored grating at having had enough losing patience fraying tattering eroding fomenting overriding shouting down throwing off incapacitating rocking the boat laying up cramping turning on turning flipping debilitating making a scene piercing causing commanding putting heat on lording it over holding a gun to one's head putting through the wringer putting the chill on cutting accosting obtruding encroaching intruding breaking in convulsing hissing dumbfounding manhandling shaming wearing down scouring sticking the knife into rocking causing pain to hunting exiling expelling getting the knife into despairing petting tiffing huffing prevailing upon effecting tightening the screw on having turning the screw on ordering demanding jangling disharmonizing disaccording hitting a sour note discording dissing bamboozling befuddling causing anguish horning in on intruding on butting in on causing someone distress interfering with causing pain barging in on stimulating gutting scratching around yapping at searching high heaven mangling bringing pressure to bear putting the bite on entangling hampering disadvantaging playing the heavy with brutalising kicking around mishandling brutalizing messing over surprising shouting at butting in shouting catcalls at targetting making game of targeting aggressing dishonoring raging wearing away biting into gnawing away at scraping away wearing to shreds ramrodding motivating challenging jumping on one's case giving the needle falling upon starting in on repressing sweating out deflating humbling belaboring bombarding catching off balance dizzying catching unawares astonishing overcoming hegemonizing mastering starting on fiddling with toying with inspiring encouraging subjecting suffocating going for jugular martyrizing giving no quarter dumping on laying a bad trip on doing an injustice to dishonouring stepping on the toes of weakening making it tough interfering meddling putting in a spot discommodating giving trouble putting to trouble giving someone bother causing someone difficulty making someone go out of his way keeping down horrifying lashing swindling hoodwinking tricking fleecing cheating handicapping beating down encumbering weighing heavy upon ruling with an iron hand bringing someone to their knees ruling over trampling overloading putting upon ruling with a rod of iron bringing under the yoke trampling on saddling holding sway over trampling underfoot holding down bringing to heel overthrowing crossing hindering impeding making someone eat humble pie disgracing taking down demeaning degrading taking the wind out getting one's comeuppance taking down a peg putting to shame fuddling furbelowing frilling stumping throwing into tizzy awing aweing immolating using demonizing affrighting having your knife into stacking the deck demonising tensing overtaxing overstretching scaring off scaring the bejesus out of bleeding conning traumatizing crowding macerating foraying noodging despoiling jerking around monopolizing engrossing consuming putting on trial crunching tensing up overdoing pushing to the limit overextending traumatising making tense causing to feel mental strain causing to feel emotional strain putting in traction surrounding making gloomy lying making despondent striking absorbing taking visiting making desolate taking the heart out of croaking repining yammering bellyaching moaning bleating yawping yauping wailing maundering muttering hollering screaming grizzling complaining grumbling beefing squealing grumping squawking grousing growling grouching inveighing whimpering whining murmuring kvetching caterwauling whingeing keening yowling overrunning infatuating fixating controlling holding encircling jostling busting chops moaning on at busting someone's balls taking it out on egging slanging crowding around mobbing descending on crowding round converging on setting upon swarming around having a grip on taking over becoming an obsession with taking control of monopolising having a hold on spoofing slamming snapping pulling one's leg messing around pulling someone's leg swipeing at

Verb

Present participle for to frustrate or prevent (someone) from achieving an aim
thwarting foiling blocking checking stopping baffling countering defeating disappointing spoiling circumventing forestalling barring dashing nullifying balking baulking crushing derailing hindering impeding obstructing quashing scotching stymieing confronting fettering hampering snookering stifling beating checkmating crippling discomfiting hamstringing hobbling inhibiting neutralising neutralizing banjaxing fouling up putting a stop to scuppering annulling arresting cancelling canceling conquering counteracting cramping crimping forbidding halting licking negating obviating outwitting overcoming precluding preventing prohibiting ruining screwing up stumping doing for nipping in the bud hanging up holding up putting a brake on putting the kibosh on putting the lid on cramping one's style dashing one's hope standing in the way of upsetting the applecart giving the run around rendering null and void curbing restraining holding back trammelling trammeling interfering with retarding restricting encumbering handicapping opposing shackling disrupting slowing down delaying deterring handcuffing putting paid to throwing a spanner in the works of interrupting hog-tying undoing bridling throwing a monkey wrench in the works of stalling sabotaging cumbering manacling staving off embarrassing putting an end to clogging wrecking constraining heading off short-circuiting tying up warding off averting upsetting messing up stonewalling smashing suppressing queering destroying fending off getting in the way quelling shattering slowing dishing borking limiting resisting repressing getting in the way of confounding devastating marring lousing up demolishing overturning repelling shutting out avoiding nobbling intercepting debarring ending curtailing crossing putting a spoke in someone's wheel crabbing holding off eluding nixing deflecting interfering traversing bilking setting back defying withstanding staying blighting cutting off impairing subduing clobbering squelching contravening fighting putting the stopper on annihilating making a mess of putting the mockers on escaping braking repulsing playing havoc with interdicting withholding binding bringing to an end blowing a hole in entangling forfending damaging subverting ruling out undermining extinguishing smothering squashing offsetting bucking controlling catching suspending invalidating diverting pre-empting parrying confining doing in challenging disconcerting cruelling euchring helping combatting combating disputing blowing anticipating pausing rattling abolishing fazing sandbagging taming reining in shelving stemming chillin chilling reducing killing injuring making a hash of chaining canceling out cancelling out taking down holding rebuffing choking putting a damper on holding in holding down defending against bringing to naught putting off keeping lid on cooling shutting down throwing a spanner in the works keeping at bay shutting off keeping off putting down denying attacking disturbing evading terminating eradicating confusing dodging ducking breaking rooting eliminating dispatching bollixing obliterating stilling threatening negativing sidestepping bypassing harming vanquishing unsettling stultifying disabling discouraging contesting scuttling dampening cornering obscuring inconveniencing skirting decimating dueling duelling preempting skinning reining juking ditching rebutting impugning keeping containing giving the slip tying remitting bottlenecking governing cutting short second-guessing mucking up straitening shaking regulating taking wind out of freezing intermitting weighing down countervailing cracking down on steering clear of driving back driving away fighting back drawing up putting a wrench in the works stamping out hemming in refusing botching fighting off throwing monkey wrench in abrogating forcing back debilitating getting ahead of getting in before warding pulling up pulling in going against beating back fetching up turning aside providing against stealing a march on bottling up abating rendering ineffective beating off overthrowing choking off corking stemming the flow of picking off dragging your feet standing off turning away thrusting back turning back vitiating damming getting the better of overruling throwing cold water on beating someone to it keeping back putting to flight making ineffective beating someone to the draw beating someone to the punch putting up a fight against brushing off striving against redressing closing off sending packing wiping out wreaking havoc counterchecking pouring cold water on turning down causing havoc putting a spanner in the works giving a hard time seeing off struggling against countermoving finishing finishing off worsting acting against discontinuing throwing disorganizing disarranging disordering getting out of surpassing convulsing shunning hitting spiking turning upside down deranging puzzling bringing to a close making an end of circumnavigating eschewing causing turmoil in throwing into confusion causing confusion in throwing into disorder throwing into disarray mystifying exceeding throwing a curve nonplussing leashing gaining triumphing burdening muzzling bringing an end to ceasing missing flummoxing commandeering crashing preventing from making progress counterplotting burying blanking enmeshing ensnaring capturing netting pigeonholing dead-ending staving incapacitating ravaging mastering tiing one's hands forefending beggaring heave-hoing snagging putting the damper on sweeping aside saddling with entrapping affecting postponing forcing away throwing back damping hanging fire taking out of play putting the brakes on tethering heading off at pass preparing for tackling influencing tampering promoting skipping buffaloing detaining retardating boxing in cheating toppling dissuading saving letting putting on hold jamming conflicting discommoding incommoding troubling besting deferring protracting throwing a spoke in the wheel of warring oppugning counterbalancing turning shunting veering scaring disadvising disaffirming contradicting gainsaying swallowing muffling surmounting putting at risk aborting putting on back burner shuffling off shaking off resolving proroguing standing fencing beating down causing setback bitting tabooing enjoining outlawing taking wind out of sails putting end to counterpoising staunching moderating breaking up breaking down giving the run-around running circles around running rings around slowing up holding over bogging down backing off putting back bringing to screeching halt holding off on prolonging making late throwing a monkey wrench into snafuing choking back intruding on halting in its tracks acting like a wet blanket talking out of coping with bringing to an end to battling against turning off making a stand against keeping in bringing up clouding dominating keeping in check shoving aside looking away turning from putting on brakes putting an stop to impoverishing crazing outmaneuvering outsmarting overreaching outfoxing unbuilding wracking outmanoeuvring having razing compensating for balancing slackening pace keeping under control keeping a lid on biting back ballsing up prevailing over gaining control of winning against triumphing over getting a grip on gaining mastery over coming to a standstill wreaking havoc with bringing to a standstill petering out not moving working against bringing down making waves throwing a monkey wrench in the works playing for time raining on someone's parade playing off cooking someone's goose measuring ruling constricting incarcerating interning imprisoning making up for correcting strangling at birth taking the wind out of your sails scarring equalizing counterweighing balancing out staining disfiguring voiding gaoling necessitating concussing fencing in disallowing closing in depriving locking in banning shutting in shotgunning jailing immuring cooping up decaying tainting trashing rescinding repealing afflicting counterweighting defusing equalising deactivating evening up squaring up overriding locking up reversing revoking retracting cooling off glitching up throttling screening foreseeing projecting preoccupying predicting monopolizing envisioning forecasting expecting protesting complicating countermanding putting half nelson on battling relucting monopolising weakening nulling dissolving vacating disannulling rendering invalid hurting compromising monkeying with facing down refusing to accept rebelling against removing dissenting with kicking against dinging breaking with taking up arms against locking horns with contending with rolling back taking issue with setting your face against speaking out against belying dumping standing up to baulking at taking on blackballing turning thumbs down taking a stand against flying in the face of objecting to fighting against striking down disproving diminishing sapping rejecting declining enfeebling eating away whittling away disempowering chipping away at digging out softening knocking the bottom out of destabilising tunnelling wearing denting destabilizing torpedoing emasculating demoralizing corroding attenuating dragging through the mud blunting demoralising queering the pitch of tunneling poking full of holes digging mining hollowing out clipping one's wings disowning kicking cutting dismissing giving cold shoulder to standing up against keeping at arm's length casting aside knocking down chasing away driving off keeping away forcing off silencing proscribing gagging keeping a tight rein on excluding delimiting keeping the lid on decreasing tying down vetoing lessening circumscribing capping tempering strangling damping down embargoing criminalizing deadening making illegal criminalising keeping within bounds decelerating clamping down on fixing quieting abstaining refraining cutting back forbearing putting the brakes on holding in check calming corking up dulling buttoning up stopping oneself keeping down overpowering quenching pegging censoring desisting disadvantaging forgoing concealing shushing setting limits on imposing limits on abjuring estopping quitting closing up blocking out keeping secret reining back snuffing out slapping down breaking off giving up sitting on deflating placing an embargo on garrotting muting depressing sinking submerging pocketing retaining quelching settling disciplining modulating shortening stunting hiding slackening entrammelling entrammeling demarcating directing keeping waiting bounding tying someone's hands forswearing barricading guiding quietening setting simmering down dropping miring closing out disqualifying occluding stuffing closing keeping in line shrinking laying off keeping hold of loitering blocking up clogging up blockading banishing boycotting putting a lid on covering up cutting down putting a limit on specifying modifying forsaking toning down declaring illegal putting on ice congesting jamming up stopping up bunging up demarking contracting boxing up bottling cooling down delimitating defining qualifying clipping someone's wings putting out plugging up putting at a disadvantage gaining control over putting away pinning down placing at a disadvantage jacking in giving a wide berth to keeping within limits passing up leaving off resisting the temptation to fighting shy of swearing off dummying up managing composing straitjacketing dissuading from overloading mitigating causing to wait causing to stay oppressing bothering charging lowering clotting sidetracking scrubbing bracing easing waiving re-collecting constipating monitoring adjusting relieving sidelining making difficult harshing keeping a rein on putting a crimp in keeping control of keeping within the limits of condemning knocking off collecting getting bogged down benumbing numbing cauterizing blanketing holding captive gumming up keeping on a string lulling inspecting recovering rallying soothing tranquilizing keeping feeling inside oneself putting out of commission taking out giving disadvantage lagging blacking putting straitjacket on forbidding to harnessing icing hushing tongue-tying plugging renouncing placing injunction on placing an injunction on allaying cauterising embogging reefing procrastinating gridlocking putting chill on putting a lock on putting a stopper in passing on zinging rationing mothballing immobilising immobilizing putting on the shelf refusing to pay prescribing sealing caulking impounding hogtying hogtieing shutting up drying up censuring putting a ceiling on enclosing cutting down on encircling narrowing prelimiting inclosing coming down on surrounding sending up girdling filling up filling passing by closing down officially forbidding icing out cursing illegalizing declaring ineligible making it impossible for making it impracticable for making impossible reserving bogging flagging hesitating dawdling loafing downing faltering poking losing steam anchoring it losing speed letting down flaps winding down hitting the brakes cracking down pulling back excepting devitalizing packing stanching choking up making impracticable placing a limit on indisposing having on a tight leash bringing under control keeping tight rein on ostracizing cowing doing without dispensing with marking off drawing the line on letting up blocking off bunging wronging ostracising exiling leaving alone gyving enfettering enchaining pinioning clamping trampling overwhelming stoppering dumbing not touching taking the pledge taking the cure avoiding doing something not doing sitting out going on the wagon having nothing to do with passing clamming driving underground trampling on treating harshly chaining up clapping securing cuffing clamming up holding out on keeping under wraps refusing to give holding on to keeping yourself holding out keeping under your hat deducting failing to disclose keeping to oneself freezing out putting lid on telling against keeping inside inflicting a handicap on doing a disservice to putting kibosh on putting in an unfavourable position treating unfairly treating unfavourably giving a disadvantage to counting out shutting out of declaring taboo bringing to a stop saying nothing putting in irons clapping in irons saying no docking bringing to a halt foregoing putting in chains determining deciding giving the red light to putting the chill on giving the thumbs down to swaying belaying omitting conditioning forming dictating truncating retrenching sacrificing restraining yourself abstaining from going easy withholding from declining to refraining from giving over keeping from shaping moulding altering underlying touching predisposing shepherding disposing acting on working on molding inclining abbreviating abridging eliding lopping paring down syncopating chopping trimming impacting on exerting influence on minifying tightening up clipping cropping slimming down slashing downsizing being a factor in having an effect on having an impact on getting to meat putting in nutshell boiling down putting a restriction on steering clear

Verb

Present participle for to diminish the confidence or courage of
discouraging disheartening dispiriting dismaying depressing daunting demoralising demoralizing dejecting distressing unnerving cowing crushing chilling chillin alarming abashing dashing unmanning troubling scaring bothering afflicting vexing awing aweing confusing disappointing trying appalling overawing irking drooping prostrating repressing casting down making despondent weighing heavily on making downhearted psyching out beating down dampening the spirits of breaking one's heart putting a damper on causing to lose heart taking the wind out of your sails dampening weakening deterring shaking sapping undermining enervating throwing subduing damping knocking sideways knocking for six knocking the stuffing out of enfeebling disempowering saddening disinclining making dejected disparaging bringing low throwing cold water on giving someone the blues pouring cold water on clouding emasculating intimidating casting a shadow devitalizing rattling disconcerting disorganizing deflating unzipping debilitating jumbling discountenancing unsettling disordering nonplussing disarranging embarrassing unglueing ungluing snarling disturbing muddling crippling upsetting getting to blowing out sending up blowing up taking apart desolating taking steam out making dispirited making crestfallen humbling humiliating weighing down indisposing getting down bringing down putting down making someone fed up throwing a pall over oppressing grieving perturbing draining harrowing mortifying wearying tormenting ailing haunting aggrieving burdening bugging darkening beating dragging dulling abasing fazing reducing to tears running down casting a gloom upon making sad making unhappy making gloomy turning off bumming out bringing tears to your eyes causing suffering to making desolate keeping under hanging over harshing someone's mellow bearing down breaking someone's heart dampening spirits dashing hopes

Verb

Present participle for to bother or cause distress in (someone)
flurrying disturbing upsetting worrying perturbing bothering unsettling agitating discomposing distressing disquieting alarming concerning dismaying discomforting distracting disconcerting flustering fussing unnerving rattling unhinging distempering ailing frazzling ruffling alaruming fazing undoing exercising hagriding confusing derailing perplexing discombobulating bewildering hassling provoking exciting hurrying bustling fluttering hustling quickening freaking out weirding out confounding puzzling nonplussing flummoxing mystifying throwing baffling vexing fuddling addling muddling throwing off balance discomfiting discountenancing abashing shaking embarrassing bemusing disorienting surprising bamboozling taking aback graveling gravelling befuddling beating dumbfounding foxing befogging getting to making someone scratch their head troubling startling appalling mortifying panicking shaking up demoralizing spooking putting off stupefying mazing buffaloing stumping demoralising flabbergasting wildering stunning flooring fouling up posing muddying fogging staggering mixing up blowing your mind going to your head causing to be at a stand setting someone thinking getting heating making nervous putting on edge flipping crazing dazing obfuscating snowing unbalancing bringing up short disorientating intoxicating messing with one's head making your head spin stymieing balling up throwing off inebriating making punchy sending into a spin stirring up working up making waves putting into a flap throwing into a tizz catching off balance bugging disarranging hindering balking psyching out taking by surprise baulking putting out of countenance stopping someone in their tracks upsetting the applecart setting someone back on their heels putting someone off their stride putting someone off their stroke scaring frightening daunting horrifying saddening shocking disheartening discouraging dispiriting eluding unmanning disappointing dashing astonishing astounding terrifying chillin paralysing chilling chagrining disillusioning striking dumb throwing for loop boggling the mind of getting at defeating pothering disenchanting affrighting disgruntling terrorising snafuing letting down paralyzing terrorizing depressing knocking sideways filling with consternation screwing up throwing into a tizzy lousing up putting the wind up knocking for six giving a turn messing up mucking up annoying fretting irritating harassing making anxious pestering plaguing irking afflicting making uneasy tormenting needling stressing displeasing paining harrying trying grieving deranging sickening gnawing at hurting scarifying frighting burning up giving a hard time nettling bedeviling bedevilling chafing besetting rousing racking galling oppressing cursing straining disordering weighing down arousing torturing aggrieving badgering causing anxiety to offending wounding lying heavy on angering tantalising tantalizing peeving making fretful miffing turning giving someone grief turning on pushing buttons egging on indisposing ticking off making a scene picking on making uncomfortable inflaming inciting taxing incommoding frenzying unquieting despairing burdening besieging beleaguering stimulating teasing making restless importuning testing persecuting tearing hectoring goading dunning fermenting disengaging disconnecting uncoupling separating unhitching detaching unfastening inconveniencing causing anxiety examining moving ventilating being sweating out suffering affecting narking bugging up making flip keying up hurting somebody's feelings incapacitating cramping flipping out firing up rocking the boat laying up bumming out debilitating getting someone getting on your wick hacking off winding up getting across freaking driving insane sending over the edge feeling unwell feeling pain filling with panic stampeding throwing into disarray carping cavilling caviling niggling fearing stewing sweating intruding outraging amazing piquing interfering tiring complicating agonizing anguishing hounding quibbling nitpicking injuring nagging flapping fidgeting fidgetting agonising breaking harrowing dogging pushing strapping desolating martyring nit-picking pricking getting in the way causing anguish to causing suffering to taking pains doing a number on weighing on arousing anxiety in making miserable making wretched eating at making it tough for cutting up labouring over getting worked up getting in a stew making a big thing out of making a big thing of destabilizing jolting making a mountain out of a molehill making a meal of making a thing of discommoding disorganizing downing jumbling disarraying displacing dementing rummaging disrupting destabilising throwing into confusion pulling the rug from under throwing into disorder pulling the rug out from under throwing into uproar

Verb

Present participle for to discourage or overwhelm
daunting discouraging disheartening dismaying dispiriting abashing deterring dejecting demoralising demoralizing disconcerting distressing fazing overwhelming throwing consternating discombobulating discomposing disquieting perturbing unsettling discomfiting panicking rattling sapping thwarting unnerving upsetting baffling chilling chillin confounding alarming unmanning putting off shaking up taking aback throwing off balance putting into a flap putting someone off their stroke pouring cold water on throwing cold water on throwing into a tizz causing someone to lose their composure shaking frightening flustering cowing disturbing agitating disarming intimidating jolting ruffling startling stunning unhinging stupefying undermining enervating spooking bewildering weakening scaring nonplussing surprising needling flooring riding buffaloing uncalming enfeebling worrying distracting bowling over getting to throwing off setting back psyching out giving a turn putting the wind up terrifying appalling terrorizing awing aweing terrorising browbeating scaring off horrifying shocking scaring away affrighting frighting alaruming scarifying scaring to death bullying subduing demotivating confusing petrifying overawing perplexing discomforting bothering bulldozing repelling stiffing astounding striking terror into mystifying curdling the blood making teeth chatter scaring the bejesus out of chilling to the bone making one's blood run cold making one's hair stand on end making someone jump out of their skin driving away frightening away chasing off warning off dissuading impressing blinding someone with something taking your breath away embarrassing discountenancing throwing into panic mortifying scaring stiff scaring witless filling with fear freezing your blood giving someone goose pimples getting the wind up throwing into a panic making one's flesh creep giving one the creeps putting the fear of God into throwing into a fright chilling to the marrow giving someone the heebie-jeebies scaring the pants off annoying throwing into a blue funk scaring someone out of their wits scaring the living daylights out of scaring someone half to death puzzling vexing dumbfounding flabbergasting muddling irritating springing on staggering springing giving someone a jolt giving someone a fright making jump giving a shock scaring the daylights out of making anxious troubling making uneasy destabilizing unbalancing flummoxing destabilising blinding pulling the rug from under pulling the rug out from under

Verb

Present participle for to let someone down, especially with regards to an obligation or duty